一鼓作气 yī gǔ zuò qì (Big bang)

作者: 弘广 分类: 成语大全 Chinese Idiom 发布时间: 2020-08-13 11:34 ė 6没有评论

出處 chū chǔ


這句話來自于《左傳·莊公十年》中的《曹刿論戰》。

zhè jù huà lái zì yú 《 zuǒ chuán · zhuāng gōng shí nián 》 zhōng de 《 cáo guì lùn zhàn 》。


原文yuán wén


十年春,齊師伐我。公將戰。曹刿請見。其鄉人曰:“肉食者謀之,又何間焉?”刿曰:“肉食者鄙,未能遠謀。”乃入見。問:“何以戰?”公曰:“衣食所安,弗敢專也,必以分人。”對曰:“小惠未徧,民弗從也。”公曰:“犧牲玉帛,弗敢加也,必以信。”對曰:“小信未孚,神弗福也。”公曰:“小大之獄,雖不能察,必以情。”對曰:“忠之屬也。可以一戰。戰則請從。”

shí nián chūn , qí shī fá wǒ 。 gōng jiāng zhàn 。 cáo guì qǐng jiàn 。 qí xiāng rén yuē :“ ròu shí zhě móu zhī , yòu hé jiān yān ?” guì yuē :“ ròu shí zhě bǐ , wèi néng yuǎn móu 。” nǎi rù jiàn 。 wèn :“ hé yǐ zhàn ?” gōng yuē :“ yī shí suǒ ān , fú gǎn zhuān yě , bì yǐ fēn rén 。” duì yuē :“ xiǎo huì wèi biàn , mín fú cóng yě 。” gōng yuē :“ xī shēng yù bó , fú gǎn jiā yě , bì yǐ xìn 。” duì yuē :“ xiǎo xìn wèi fú , shén fú fú yě 。” gōng yuē :“ xiǎo dà zhī yù , suī bù néng chá , bì yǐ qíng 。” duì yuē :“ zhōng zhī shǔ yě 。 kě yǐ yī zhàn 。 zhàn zé qǐng cóng 。”


公與之乘。戰于長勺。公將鼓之。刿曰:“未可。”齊人三鼓。刿曰:“可矣。”齊師敗績。公將馳之。刿曰:“未可。”下視其轍,登轼而望之,曰:“可矣。”遂逐齊師。

gōng yǔ zhī chéng 。 zhàn yú cháng sháo 。 gōng jiāng gǔ zhī 。 guì yuē :“ wèi kě 。” qí rén sān gǔ 。 guì yuē :“ kě yǐ 。” qí shī bài jì 。 gōng jiāng chí zhī 。 guì yuē :“ wèi kě 。” xià shì qí zhé , dēng shì ér wàng zhī , yuē :“ kě yǐ 。” suì zhú qí shī 。


既克,公問其故。對曰:“夫戰,勇氣也。一鼓作氣,再而衰,三而竭。彼竭我盈,故克之,夫大國,難測也,懼有伏焉。吾視其轍亂,望其旗靡,故逐之。”


jì kè , gōng wèn qí gù 。 duì yuē :“ fū zhàn , yǒng qì yě 。 yī gǔ zuò qì , zài ér shuāi , sān ér jié 。 bǐ jié wǒ yíng , gù kè zhī , fū dà guó , nán cè yě , jù yǒu fú yān 。 wú shì qí zhé luàn , wàng qí qí mí , gù zhú zhī 。”

譯文 yì wén

魯莊公十年(公元前684年)春天,齊國軍隊攻打魯國。魯莊公準備應戰。曹刿請求拜見。他的同鄉說:“都是得高官厚祿的人在商量這事,你又為什麽要參與呢?”曹刿說:“有權勢的人目光短淺,缺少見識,不能深謀遠慮。”于是上朝去拜見魯莊公。曹刿問:“您憑什麽應戰呢?”莊公說 :“衣服、食品這些養生的東西,我不敢獨自專有,一定拿它來分給一些臣子。”曹刿回答說:“小恩小惠沒有遍及于老百姓,老百姓是不會聽從的。”莊公說:“用來祭祀的牛、羊、豬、玉器和絲織品,我不敢虛報,一定憑著一片至誠,告訴神。”曹刿回答說:“這點兒小誠意,不能被神信任,神不會賜福的。”莊公說:“輕重不同的案件,我即使不善于明察詳審,一定依據實情處理。”曹刿回答說:“這是盡了本職的一類事情。可以憑借這個條件打一仗。要打仗,請允許我跟隨著去。”

lǔ zhuāng gōng shí nián ( gōng yuán qián 684 nián ) chūn tiān , qí guó jūn duì gōng dǎ lǔ guó 。 lǔ zhuāng gōng zhǔn bèi yīng zhàn 。 cáo guì qǐng qiú bài jiàn 。 tā de tóng xiāng shuō :“ dū shì dé gāo guān hòu lù de rén zài shāng liáng zhè shì , nǐ yòu wéi shén mó yào cān yǔ ní ?” cáo guì shuō :“ yǒu quán shì de rén mù guāng duǎn qiǎn , quē shǎo jiàn shí , bù néng shēn móu yuǎn lǜ 。” yú shì shàng zhāo qù bài jiàn lǔ zhuāng gōng 。 cáo guì wèn :“ nín píng shén mó yīng zhàn ní ?” zhuāng gōng shuō :“ yī fú 、 shí pǐn zhè xiē yǎng shēng de dōng xī , wǒ bù gǎn dú zì zhuān yǒu , yī dìng ná tā lái fēn gěi yī xiē chén zǐ 。” cáo guì huí dá shuō :“ xiǎo ēn xiǎo huì méi yǒu biàn jí yú lǎo bǎi xìng , lǎo bǎi xìng shì bù huì tīng cóng de 。” zhuāng gōng shuō :“ yòng lái jì sì de niú 、 yáng 、 zhū 、 yù qì hé sī zhī pǐn , wǒ bù gǎn xū bào , yī dìng píng zhù yī piàn zhì chéng , gào sù shén 。” cáo guì huí dá shuō :“ zhè diǎn ér xiǎo chéng yì , bù néng bèi shén xìn rèn , shén bù huì cì fú de 。” zhuāng gōng shuō :“ qīng zhòng bù tóng de àn jiàn , wǒ jí shǐ bù shàn yú míng chá xiáng shěn , yī dìng yī jù shí qíng chǔ lǐ 。” cáo guì huí dá shuō :“ zhè shì jìn le běn zhí de yī lèi shì qíng 。 kě yǐ píng jiè zhè gè tiáo jiàn dǎ yī zhàng 。 yào dǎ zhàng , qǐng yǔn xū wǒ gēn suí zhù qù 。”

莊公同他共坐一輛戰車。魯國齊國的軍隊在長勺作戰。莊公打算擊鼓命令進軍。曹刿說:“不行。”齊國軍隊敲了三次鼓。曹刿說:“可以進攻了。”齊國的軍隊大敗。莊公準備驅車追去。曹刿說:“不行。”于是向下觀察齊軍車輪留下的痕迹,又登上車前的橫木了望齊軍,說:“可以了。”就追擊齊國軍隊。

zhuāng gōng tóng tā gòng zuò yī liàng zhàn chē 。 lǔ guó qí guó de jūn duì zài cháng sháo zuò zhàn 。 zhuāng gōng dǎ suàn jī gǔ mìng líng jìn jūn 。 cáo guì shuō :“ bù háng 。” qí guó jūn duì qiāo le sān cì gǔ 。 cáo guì shuō :“ kě yǐ jìn gōng le 。” qí guó de jūn duì dà bài 。 zhuāng gōng zhǔn bèi qū chē zhuī qù 。 cáo guì shuō :“ bù háng 。” yú shì xiàng xià guān chá qí jūn chē lún liú xià de hén jì , yòu dēng shàng chē qián de héng mù le wàng qí jūn , shuō :“ kě yǐ le 。” jiù zhuī jī qí guó jūn duì 。

戰勝了齊國軍隊後,莊公問這樣做的原因。曹刿回答說:“作戰是靠勇氣的。第一次擊鼓能振作士兵們的勇氣,第二次擊鼓可以使士兵們的勇氣低落,第三次擊鼓士兵們的勇氣就消失了。他們的勇氣消失了,我軍的勇氣正旺盛,所以戰勝了他們。大國,是不容易中計的,怕有伏兵在那裏。我看見他們的車輪痕迹混亂了,望見他們的旗幟倒下了,所以才去追擊齊軍。”

zhàn shèng le qí guó jūn duì hòu , zhuāng gōng wèn zhè yàng zuò de yuán yīn 。 cáo guì huí dá shuō :“ zuò zhàn shì kào yǒng qì de 。 dì yī cì jī gǔ néng zhèn zuò shì bīng mén de yǒng qì , dì èr cì jī gǔ kě yǐ shǐ shì bīng mén de yǒng qì dī là , dì sān cì jī gǔ shì bīng mén de yǒng qì jiù xiāo shī le 。 tā mén de yǒng qì xiāo shī le , wǒ jūn de yǒng qì zhèng wàng shèng , suǒ yǐ zhàn shèng le tā mén 。 dà guó , shì bù róng yì zhōng jì de , pà yǒu fú bīng zài nà lǐ 。 wǒ kàn jiàn tā mén de chē lún hén jì hùn luàn le , wàng jiàn tā mén de qí zhì dǎo xià le , suǒ yǐ cái qù zhuī jī qí jūn 。”

Big bang (English

In the spring of Duke Lu ten years (684 BC), Kingdom Qi’s army attacked Kingdom Lu. Duke Lu is ready to challenge. Citizen Cao Kui requested that the Duke Lu grant him an interview. His fellows in village said: “Only the people with high positions are discussing this matter, why should you participate?” Cao Kui said: “Powerful people are short-sighted, lack insight, and cannot be foresighted.” So he went to visit Duke Lu on the court.

Cao Kui asked: “How to win?”

Duke Lu said, “I dare not share clothes and food alone. I must use it to distribute to some officials.”

Cao Kui replied, “Little favors and small benefits are not benefit to everywhere. The common people will not follow.”

Duke Lu said: “I dare not make false reports about the cattle, sheep, pigs, jade and silk used for offering sacrifices. I must tell God with my sincerity.”

Cao Kui replied, “This is a little sincerity, you cannot be trusted by God, and God will not bless you.”

Duke Lu said: “Even if I am not good at investigating and examining cases of different legal cases, I must deal with them according to the facts.”

Cao Kui replied, “You do the best of you own. You can fight a battle on this condition. If you want to fight, please allow me to follow your side.”

Duke Lu shared a chariot with him. The army of Lu and Qi is fighting in Changshao. Duke Lu intends to drum to march [1]. Cao Kui said: “Wait.” The Qi army beat the drum three times. Cao Kui said: “Now we can attack.” Qi’s army was defeated. Duke Lu was about to drive to chase. Cao Kui said: “No.” So he looked down at the traces left by the Qi army’s wheels, then boarded the crossbar in front of the car to look at the Qi army and said, “It’s okay to chase now.” Then they pursued the Qi army.

After defeating the Qi army, Duke Lu asked why he did so. Cao Kui replied: “Combat is based on courage. The first drum beat can cheer up the courage of the soldiers, the second drum beat can make the soldiers’ courage low, and after the third drum beats the courage of the soldiers will disappear as they still not to fight. While our army is full of courage, so we can defeated them. Great countries are not easy to get caught. I am afraid that there will be ambushes. I saw their wheels in chaos, and saw their flags fall. That’s why I know it was the right time  to pursue Army Qi.”

軍事常識 jūn shì cháng shí

春秋(前770年-前476年)軍禮重禮守信,要求堂堂正正,要講武德。春秋的戰爭主要是車兵車戰。多數都是一車四馬三人,一輛車後面再跟一些步兵,這稱為一乘。齊軍擊鼓進軍就意味著齊軍開始催馬衝鋒。馬拉的戰車一衝鋒,整個隊形就會有變化。齊軍向前衝了一會兒,發現魯軍沒有擊鼓,以為魯軍沒有準備好,就只好把馬停下來,重新退回陣地去列隊。

chūn qiū ( qián 770 nián – qián 476 nián ) jūn lǐ zhòng lǐ shǒu xìn , yào qiú táng táng zhèng zhèng , yào jiǎng wǔ dé 。 chūn qiū de zhàn zhēng zhǔ yào shì chē bīng chē zhàn 。 duō shù dū shì yī chē sì mǎ sān rén , yī liàng chē hòu miàn zài gēn yī xiē bù bīng , zhè chēng wéi yī chéng 。 qí jūn jī gǔ jìn jūn jiù yì wèi zhù qí jūn kāi shǐ cuī mǎ chōng fēng 。 mǎ lā de zhàn chē yī chōng fēng , zhěng gè duì xíng jiù huì yǒu biàn huà 。 qí jūn xiàng qián chōng le yī huì ér , fā xiàn lǔ jūn méi yǒu jī gǔ , yǐ wéi lǔ jūn méi yǒu zhǔn bèi hǎo , jiù zhī hǎo bǎ mǎ tíng xià lái , zhòng xīn tuì huí zhèn dì qù liè duì 。

就這樣,齊軍的兵車部隊前後三次衝鋒,三次退回,這的確很消耗士氣。齊軍為什麽這麽做?這是由當時的軍禮規則所決定的。春秋時期的軍禮傳統,是只要對方還沒有擺好陣形,還沒有擊鼓,你就不能展開攻擊。

jiù zhè yàng , qí jūn de bīng chē bù duì qián hòu sān cì chōng fēng , sān cì tuì huí , zhè de què hěn xiāo hào shì qì 。 qí jūn wéi shén mó zhè mó zuò ? zhè shì yóu dāng shí de jūn lǐ guī zé suǒ jué dìng de 。 chūn qiū shí qī de jūn lǐ chuán tǒng , shì zhī yào duì fāng huán méi yǒu bǎi hǎo zhèn xíng , huán méi yǒu jī gǔ , nǐ jiù bù néng zhǎn kāi gōng jī 。

長勺之戰的情況就是:齊軍見魯軍已經排列好了,開始擊鼓進攻。正常情況下,魯軍在齊軍擊鼓準備展開進攻時也要擊鼓進攻。但是曹刿的辦法就是:齊軍已經擊鼓進軍,雖然魯軍已經排列好隊形,但魯軍就是不擊鼓。魯軍不擊鼓,雙方就不能進入交戰狀態。這樣,嚴守軍禮的齊軍就只好退回。

cháng sháo zhī zhàn de qíng kuàng jiù shì : qí jūn jiàn lǔ jūn yǐ jīng pái liè hǎo le , kāi shǐ jī gǔ jìn gōng 。 zhèng cháng qíng kuàng xià , lǔ jūn zài qí jūn jī gǔ zhǔn bèi zhǎn kāi jìn gōng shí yě yào jī gǔ jìn gōng 。 dàn shì cáo guì de bàn fǎ jiù shì : qí jūn yǐ jīng jī gǔ jìn jūn , suī rán lǔ jūn yǐ jīng pái liè hǎo duì xíng , dàn lǔ jūn jiù shì bù jī gǔ 。 lǔ jūn bù jī gǔ , shuāng fāng jiù bù néng jìn rù jiāo zhàn zhuàng tài 。 zhè yàng , yán shǒu jūn lǐ de qí jūn jiù zhī hǎo tuì huí 。

戰爭過程中也有一套禮儀,戰車的戰爭一般都選在便于戰車作戰的開闊地帶,一定要等到雙方都排列好隊形後,才會堂堂正正地開戰,這叫“不鼓不成列”。不斬來使。“不重傷”,就是不能再去傷害已經受傷的敵人。見到敵方國君,要行禮。還有不殺老幼,不欺詐,不搞突然襲擊,不搞夜襲,對方處于險境的時候,不能夠再進攻等。

zhàn zhēng guò chéng zhōng yě yǒu yī tào lǐ yí , zhàn chē de zhàn zhēng yī bān dū xuǎn zài biàn yú zhàn chē zuò zhàn de kāi kuò dì dài , yī dìng yào děng dào shuāng fāng dū pái liè hǎo duì xíng hòu , cái huì táng táng zhèng zhèng dì kāi zhàn , zhè jiào “ bù gǔ bù chéng liè ”。 bù zhǎn lái shǐ 。“ bù zhòng shāng ”, jiù shì bù néng zài qù shāng hài yǐ jīng shòu shāng de dí rén 。 jiàn dào dí fāng guó jūn , yào háng lǐ 。 huán yǒu bù shā lǎo yòu , bù qī zhà , bù gǎo tū rán xí jī , bù gǎo yè xí , duì fāng chǔ yú xiǎn jìng de shí hòu , bù néng gòu zài jìn gōng děng 。

Military knowledge

The Spring and Autumn (770BC-476BC) Military Rules emphasizes etiquette and keep faith, requires open and martial ethics. The war in the Spring and Autumn Period was mainly chariot battle. Most of them are three people in one car with four horses, and a car followed by some infantry. This is called a ride. Qi army marching on drums means that Qi Jun begins to rush his horse to charge. As soon as the horse-drawn chariot charges, the entire formation changes. Qi army rushed forward for a while, and found that the Lu army was not playing drums, thinking that the Lu army was not ready, so he had to stop the horse, retreat to the position and line up.

In this way, the Qi army’s troops charged back and forth three times and retreated three times, which was indeed a morale drain. Why did Qi army do this? This was determined by the rules of military etiquette at the time. The tradition of military salutes during the Spring and Autumn Period is that as long as the opponent hasn’t formed a formation and hasn’t beaten the drums, you can’t attack.

The situation in the Battle of Chang Shao was: Qi army saw that the Lu Army had been lined up, and began to attack with drums. Under normal circumstances, the Lu army also beats drums when the Qi army is ready to attack. But Cao Kui’s method is: Qi army has already beaten the drums to march, although the Lu army has arranged the formation, but the Lu army just does not beat the drums. If the Lu army does not beat the drums, the two sides cannot enter a state of war. In this way, the Qi army who strictly guarded the military salute had to retreat.

There is also a set of etiquette during the war. Chariot battles are generally selected in open areas that are convenient for chariot operations. You must wait until both sides have lined up before the battle will start upright. This is called “no drums, no rows.” Don’t kill emissary. “Not seriously injured” means that you can no longer hurt an enemy that has been injured. When you see the enemy monarch, you must salute. There is also no killing of the old and child, no cheating, no surprise attack, no night attack, when the opponent is in danger, he cannot attack again.

本文出自 弘广的修道空间,转载时请注明出处及相应链接。

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