立春和春节的习俗–转自知乎

作者: 弘广 分类: 中华传统节日 发布时间: 2017-01-27 20:57 ė 646条评论
作者:蔓玫
链接:https://www.zhihu.com/question/39845059/answer/83388770
来源:知乎
著作权归作者所有,转载请联系作者获得授权。

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历史上有很长一段时间,春节被认为就是立春。所以我把立春和春节的习俗放在一起讲了哈。

中国一直是典型的东亚农业社会,因为农事基础,所以对「春」这个季节最具感情。立春/春节一般被认为是古代最重要的节日,所以相关民俗文化极多,而且根据年代、地域各有不同。如放鞭炮、贴春联、穿新衣之类流传至今的大众习俗就不说了,先介绍一些比较小众和「风雅」的~

1. 穿青衣迎春

立春日,夜漏未盡五刻,京師百官皆衣青衣,郡國縣道官下至斗食令史皆服青幘,立春旛,施土牛耕人於門外,以示兆民。
——《后汉书礼仪志》

古人相信春季万物生发,天地翠色,故属性上对应的颜色是「青」(青绿)。统治阶级为表示自己与「天」的关联性,所以也把穿青色衣服视作仪式之一。
同理,立夏红色(朱),立秋白色,立冬黑色。
同理,春季对应的方位是「东」。所以天子和文武百官要前往东门之外迎春。

2. 饮梅花酒/椒柏酒

长幼悉正衣冠,以次拜贺,进椒柏酒……董勋云:俗有岁首用椒酒,椒花芬香,故采花以贡樽。正月饮酒先小者,以小者得岁,先酒贺之。老者失岁,故后与酒。
——《荆楚岁时记》

梅花酒,元日服之却老。
——《四民月令》

椒柏酒即以花椒、柏枝所制之酒。是的你没看错,古时候很流行喝花椒相关饮料。如《楚辞》亦有「蕙肴蒸兮兰藉,奠桂酒兮椒浆。」由此衍生而来又有「屠苏酒」,配料更多些。
梅花酒不确定。立春时我国大部分地区的梅花尚未开放,应是上一年采摘梅花酿制而成。类似的食谱《山家清供》里有,不详述。

3. 食七菜粥

正月七日为人日。以七种菜为羹。
——《荆楚岁时记》

中国上古时代的传说里也有类似《圣经》中创世纪的情节,如「正月一日为鸡,二日为狗,三日为猪,四日为羊,五日为牛,六日为马,七日为人」。七菜粥即取七种早春新鲜蔬菜做粥/羹,取迎新去晦之意。
详情我以前写过~参见:【节气手帖】立春:春之七草-蔓玫的专栏
七菜粥如今在日本更为流行,曰「七草」。国内倒是式微了。

4. 食春盘/咬春

立春日,春餅生菜,號春盤。

——《四时宝镜》
東晉李鄂立春日,命以蘆菔、芹芽為菜盤,相餽貺。
——《摭遺》(没查到这本书)
立春日,食生菜,取迎新之意。
——《齐人月令》

新春日献辛盘。虽士庶之家,亦必割鸡豚,炊面饼,而杂以生菜、青韭芽、羊角葱,冲和合菜皮,兼生食水红萝卜,名曰咬春。
——《帝京岁时纪胜》

古人认为春日的气息是向外发散的——经过冬季蛰伏后,草木蓬勃生长,气温回升。所以流行趋势是食用有「辛味」的东西(如前面提到的椒柏酒),新生的野菜(如七菜),「春盘」「咬春」也是由此发展而来。
一般是韭菜、葱、水芹、萝卜之类新生的鲜嫩蔬菜,有清新口感的。摊在盘子里,是「春盘」;卷成春卷、春饼之类吃,就是「咬春」。

春菜+梅花酒,就是下图的样子啦:)

5. 剪彩绸为燕子,做头饰迎春

立春之日,悉剪綵为燕戴之,帖「宜春」二字。
——《荆楚岁时记》

綵即五色绸之意。

燕子被认为是春天最具代表性的鸟儿之一,七十二候里也有「春分,玄鸟至」的说法。彩燕迎春,大概就是想要像它们一样轻巧地迎接新春天吧;)

6. 御风

列子御風常以立春歸於八荒,是風至則草木發生。

——《要览》
立春日,取弘農宜陽金門山竹為管,河內葭草為灰,以候陽氣。
——《玉泉记》

「御风」的正式含义是驾驭着风,乘风而行,我这里姑且把它理解为「人对春日气息的关注和实验」~~~

古人相信四季的「气」有所不同,春日的「气」是「阳气」,轻清上升,所以如果在竹管内放入一些草木灰,即使没有人动,春气也会带动飞灰,甚至发出声音。古时称之为「葭管」。

但有的时候「葭管飞灰」也被认为是属于冬至的——冬至一阳生,已经有阳气了。

7. 簪花、采花、赐花

立春日,自郎官御史以上皆賜春旛勝,入賀訖,戴歸私第。又士大夫家翦綵為春旛,或綴於花枝之下,或翦為春蝶、春錢、春勝以為戲,東坡立春日,亦簪旛勝過子由,諸子姪笑指云,伯伯老人亦簪花勝耶。
——《东京梦华录》

正月八日立春,內出綵花賜近臣。
——《景龙文馆记》
紹聖二年上元,幸集禧觀,出宮花賜從駕臣僚各數十枝,時人榮之。
——《聞見近錄 》

立春在公历2月4日前后,春节也是2月。这时候盛开的鲜花并不多,所以这一习俗最初只有贵族/统治阶级才能享受。民间多是把彩纸、金箔做成花朵的样子,插戴。
唐宋以降,人们开始熟练调配鲜花的开放时间,这时候就有更多的花可供选择了。

8. 剪彩纸、金箔为人

翦綵為人,或縷金箔為人,以貼屏風,亦戴之頭鬢,又造花勝以相遺,登高賦詩。
——《荆楚岁时记》

这个做法好像是为了祈愿,希望自己的形貌精神都焕然一新的样子。

9. 放灯、观灯

初八日传为诸星下界,燃灯为祭。灯数以百有八盏为率,有四十九盏者,有按玉匣记本命星灯之数者。
——《帝京岁时纪胜》

一般认为从立春后到上元节(即元宵节,正月十五),都要以彩灯装饰屋宇。初八开始就是赏灯的高潮了。「月上柳梢头,人约黄昏后」什么的就不用多说了吧:)

来继续补充咯~那些不是太风雅但也很有趣或很重要的。

· 鞭春牛

临安府进春牛于禁庭。立春前一日,以镇鼓锣吹妓乐迎春牛,往府衙前迎春馆内,至日侵晨,郡守率僚佐以彩仗鞭春,如方州仪。

——《梦梁录》

立春日,各省会府州县卫遵制鞭春。京师除各署鞭春外,以彩绘按图经制芒神土牛,舁以彩亭,导以仪仗鼓吹。交春之刻,京兆尹帅两学诸生恭进大内。
——《帝京岁时纪胜》

进入春天后,农耕成为第一要紧事,牛当然就是最重要的角色之一。自周朝起便有制土牛,鞭策以鼓舞大家春耕的做法。

· 贴鸡

帖画鸡户上,悬苇索于其上,插桃符其傍,百鬼畏之。

——《荆楚岁时记》

这一做法好像是起源于一只天鸡,说是最早迎接春日曙光之类的。。。也有说法认为是起源于神话中的重明鸟。不赘述。

· 吞鸡蛋

正旦,当生吞鸡子一枚,谓之练形。

——《风土记》

大概是以鸡蛋助元气。

· 杖打粪扫

以钱贯系杖脚,回以投粪扫上,云令如愿。

——《荆楚岁时记》

译文的解释是:「把串起来的钱绑在竹竿的末端,拿在手里围绕粪土转几圈,然后投打在粪土堆上。说令人如愿以偿。」

********以上是原作者的回答*************

在我国历史上,新年开始的第一天一直是叫“元旦”的。然而,几千年的传统印痕再现了古代国人过春节的喜悦心情和当时的狂欢场面。据史籍记载,春节在唐虞时叫“载”.夏代叫“岁”,商代叫“祀”,周代才叫“年”。“年”的本义指谷物生长周期,谷子一年一热,所以春节一年一次,含有庆丰的寓意。至于互相拜年宴请,则起自汉初。

按中国人的习惯,每年一到腊月(农历十二月)就准备年货过年了。除夕晚上,即使常年在外的人们此时也一定要赶回家团聚。古人(主要指汉族)团年,一般以吃年糕、饺子、糍粑、汤圆、荷包蛋、大肉九、全鱼、美酒、福橘、苹果、花生、瓜子、糖果、香茗及肴馔为主;并伴有掸扬尘、洗被褥、备年货、贴春联、贴年画、贴剪纸、贴福字、点蜡烛、点旺火、放鞭炮、守岁、给压岁钱、拜年、走亲戚、上祖坟、逛花市、闹社火等众多活动,极尽天伦之乐。除夕的家宴菜肴各地都有自己的特色。旧时北京、天津一般人家做大米干饭,炖猪肉、牛羊肉、炖鸡,再做几个炒菜。陕西家宴一般为四大盘、八大碗,四大盘为炒菜和凉菜,八大碗以烩菜、烧菜为主。安徽南部仅肉类菜肴就有红烧肉、虎皮肉、肉圆子、木须肉、粉蒸肉、炖肉及猪肝、猪心、猪肚制品,另外还有各种炒肉片、炒肉丝等。湖北东部地区为“三蒸”、“三糕、“三丸”。哈尔滨一带一般人家炒8个、10个或12、16个菜不等,其主料无非是鸡鸭鱼肉和蔬菜。赣南的年夜饭一般为12 道菜。浙江有些地方一般为“十大碗”,讨“十全十福”之彩,以鸡鸭鱼肉及各种蔬菜为主。江西南昌地区一般十多道菜,讲究四冷、四热、八大菜、两个汤。…古代,在春节期间,大街上会出现游行的队伍,且各朝代各地区都不一样:有的会演社戏,有的会舞龙舞狮,当戏曲逐渐占据人们主要的娱乐领域后,春节看戏就成了那场松散的“春晚”最热闹最受人欢迎的地方。这种游行,有的地方称其为“演春”。至于古代有钱的人家,就不用出去看戏了,他们会在自己家里搭戏台、邀请戏班子开锣。春节早晨,开门大吉,先放爆竹,叫做“开门炮仗”。爆竹声后,碎红满地,灿若云锦,称为“满堂红”。这时满街瑞气,喜气洋洋。春节里的一项重要活动,是到新朋好友家和邻那里祝贺新春,旧称拜年。汉族拜年之风,汉代已有。唐宋之后十分盛行,有些不必亲身前往的,可用名帖投贺。

********以上是作者文章下面,署名“小仙儿”的评论************

春节到了,祝大家新春快乐,恭喜发财!

本文出自 弘广的修道空间,转载时请注明出处及相应链接。

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